乌拉圭空军571航班失事如何导致橄榄球队吃人

1972年10月13日,乌拉圭空军571次航班离开阿根廷门多萨市,载着乌拉圭蒙得维的亚的老基督徒橄榄球俱乐部前往智利圣地亚哥参加一场预定的比赛。要到达那里,飞机必须飞越安第斯山脉积雪覆盖的山峰。已经有迹象表明这次飞行并不容易。飞行员已经在安第斯山脉上空飞行了几十次。但他的副驾驶,他正在训练,谁会真正控制飞机,没有。天气状况在山上已经停飞后不久,飞机离开蒙得维的亚前一天。当飞机穿过群山时,周围笼罩着浓雾。

由于能见度接近零度,飞行员不得不依靠仪器来了解自己的位置。下午三点左右,飞机用无线电通知圣地亚哥的空中交通管制人员,说他快到库里科镇了,就要降落到圣地亚哥了。根据飞行员的位置报告,塔台准许降落。事实上,这架飞机离圣地亚哥很远。飞行员误读了仪器。他没有像他想的那样朝机场降落,而是在一条与山脊相撞的路线上。

维基媒体公共空间的失事飞机复制品

当飞机接近山脊时,一股突然的风把飞机吹到几百英尺的高空。自由落体把他们从云层中带了出来,飞行员们第一次看到了眼前的景象。不幸的是,飞机前面只有一堵坚固的岩石墙。飞行员立即拉起油门,把油门踩下。飞机的机头在最后一刻升起,飞行员得以避开山脊。但突然的机动使发动机失去了动力,飞机把山脊剪断了。

坠机把右翼撕开,把机身撕成两半。飞机尾部从山边滚落时,有5人丧生。前端向相反的斜坡倾斜。接着,左翼被扯下来。机翼的螺旋桨立即松开,划破了机身的一部分。当飞机前部像雪橇一样滑下山时,又有两个人被吸进机身后部的洞里。

安第斯山脉詹姆斯街

机身滑下斜坡超过2000英尺,然后与雪堆相撞,撞击的力量使驾驶舱像汽水罐一样坍塌,一名飞行员丧生。有几个座位被撕掉了,飞到了飞机的前部,乘客们仍然被安全带绑着,又有几个遇难。从蒙得维的亚出发的45名乘客中,只有33人在坠机后仍然活着。许多人受重伤。其余的被困在数千英尺高的安第斯山脉。至少他们还活着。但要多久?

Canessa和Fernando Parrado维基百科共享空间

机上的两名橄榄球运动员古斯塔沃·泽比诺和罗伯托·卡内萨是乌拉圭的医学生。他们现在利用训练帮助受伤的乘客。即使是在坠机后不久,他们也不得不做出艰难的决定。他们不能帮助所有人。许多乘客复合骨折或被飞机碎片刺伤。他们尽了全力。但随着太阳下山,气温下降。在第一天晚上,又有5人因受伤而死亡。与此同时,智利当局正在准备救援行动。

当飞机未能如期抵达圣地亚哥时,救援飞机被派去寻找幸存者。几架飞机甚至飞过了坠机地点。幸存者们试图给飞机发信号,但没有人能在雪地里认出残骸。一些幸存者试图在他们的行李中发现一个在机身顶部的SOS,但是他们很快意识到他们没有足够的。他们还在飞机上发现了一个小型晶体管收音机,用来监视搜寻工作,尽管他们不能用它向任何人发出他们还活着的信号。

幸存者们在接下来的几天里建造了一个简陋的避难所,以躲避飞机残骸。在那里他们必须忍受零度以下的温度。天气已经很弱而且很受伤,对许多还活着的人来说是致命的。更糟糕的是,他们从残骸中搜到的食物数量有限。即使有严格的配给,也不会持续很长时间。随着时间的流逝,每一次吸引头顶上飞行的飞机注意的尝试都失败了,许多人开始担心他们再也见不到家了。

起初,一些人试图通过吃飞机座椅上的皮革来生存。但在第十天,一些幸存者达成了协议。如果他们死了,他们决定,那么其他人应该吃他们的肉生存。这是一个艰难的决定。老基督徒橄榄球俱乐部的许多成员都很虔诚。吃死人的想法只有被看作是一种交流才能被接受。耶稣既把身体交给门徒吃,死人也要把身体交给活人。

维基媒体共享网站崩溃

在第十一天,一些幸存者聚集在收音机周围,听他们一直害怕的消息。搜索已取消。由于没有生命迹象,救援人员决定等到春天雪融化后再寻找尸体。这消息使幸存者的情绪低落。但是,一个名叫古斯塔沃·尼科里奇的人把头伸到避难所里,宣称:“好消息,他们已经取消了搜寻工作。”当其他幸存者中的一个问到为什么这是好消息时,尼科里奇高兴地回答说:“因为这意味着我们必须自己离开这里。”

机身残骸Youtube

到现在为止,大多数人已经接受了这样一个事实:他们只能靠吃死人来生存。罗伯托·卡内萨领先。他不喜欢吃朋友的主意。但他知道没有食物,他们都会死。和许多幸存者一样,他知道他的朋友们会希望他们做任何能让他活下去的事,他感觉好多了。所以他们用一块碎玻璃把尸体上的肉切成条,在阳光下晒干。

卡内萨只吞下了一小块肉。这不是一顿饭,而是一种绝望的行为。但他的例子给了其他幸存者生存所需的力量。日子一天天过去,就连这最后的食物也开始散发出来。当肌肉消失后,他们不得不求助于死者的大脑和器官。很明显,即使吃掉这些尸体也不足以让它们存活,直到最后被救援人员发现。饥饿并不是山上唯一的危险。

10月29日,一场大规模雪崩席卷了避难所。大雪掩埋了幸存者,其中八人丧生。其中一个人用金属杆在雪地上戳了足够多的洞,以免其他人窒息而死。但再过两天他们就无法从雪地里挖出来了。当他们这样做的时候,他们受到外面狂风暴雨的欢迎。他们在雪中呆了三天才设法逃离机身残骸。卡内萨现在明白了,等待只会意味着死亡。

他们唯一的生存机会就是有人在山上跋涉寻找帮助。橄榄球俱乐部中身体最健康的成员,包括卡内萨,决定试试运气。该小组从坠机地点出发,探索周围地区。但在几乎冻死后,他们决定返回坠机地点。然后他们想出了用飞机的绝缘材料做睡袋的主意。他们希望这个袋子能保护他们不受冰冻温度的影响,使他们能够在足够长的时间内下山。

费尔南多“南多”帕拉多获救后维基媒体公地

12月12日,事故发生两个多月后,罗伯托·卡内萨、南多·帕拉多和安东尼奥·维津廷三人出发,试图寻求帮助。他们花了十天的时间在深雪和严寒中跋涉。最后,他们在马背上遇到了一个智利牧场主。12月22日,救援直升机抵达现场,接回幸存者。只有16个人还活着。但他们的故事很快就被称为“安第斯山脉的奇迹”,并最终激发了这部电影的生命力,罗伯托·卡内萨后来成为一位受人尊敬的儿科心脏病专家,甚至成为总统候选人。他觉得这段经历并没有从根本上改变他是谁。他说:“每天我照镜子的时候,感谢上帝,那个老混蛋还在盯着我看。”。

我们在哪里找到这些东西的?以下是我们的消息来源:

“南多·帕拉多回忆起1972年安第斯山脉飞机失事时幸存下来的情景”。安·施密特,每日邮报。2017年11月。

“在飞机失事和食人之后——充满希望的生活”。西蒙·沃拉尔,国家地理。2016年4月。

“乌拉圭空军571航班”。艾米·蒂卡宁,《大英百科全书》。2017年7月。

文章来源美国那些事转载请注明出处:美国那些事 » 乌拉圭空军571航班失事如何导致橄榄球队吃人

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