文艺复兴时期佛罗伦萨的雄心壮志:吉拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉的生死

今天游览佛罗伦萨,你将看到一座美丽非凡的城市,令人叹为观止的建筑和无与伦比的艺术遗产。但尽管佛罗伦萨很有魅力,但它也有欺骗性。因为它的美丽掩盖了一个充满暴力和仇恨的过去。历史收藏最近发表了一篇关于佛罗伦萨漫长而血腥的历史中的一个章节:帕齐阴谋的文章,但这绝不是唯一的一篇。正如(如果不是更多)著名的是吉拉莫萨沃纳罗拉的故事:一个宗教狂热者谁试图把“上帝的意志”强加给佛罗伦萨市,但最终以他的生命付出。

吉拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉1452年出生于费拉拉。他的祖父是费拉拉公爵的一名医生,他接受了教育,但长大后却拒绝了他所过的社会、物质生活:把时间花在阅读圣经上,睡在稻草床垫上,不惜一切代价避开女人和葡萄酒。萨沃纳罗拉23岁时从家里逃到博洛尼亚的多米尼加修道院,他以此为基地在意大利各地传教,最后于1489年在佛罗伦萨的圣马可修道院定居。

在那里,他开始发表世界末日般的热情洋溢的布道,讲述这个城市即将在一个外国国王的手中灭亡,并继续对这个城市如何变得邪恶颓废、被美第奇家族的财富摧毁的长篇大论进行说教。在整个1490年代早期,美第奇家族的首领、佛罗伦萨共和国的实际统治者洛伦佐·德·美第奇(Lorenzo de’Medici)一直容忍他的颠覆性言论。但1492年,洛伦佐去世,留下了一位既没有政治手腕,也没有人气的继任者来维持家族的统治。

吉拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉狂热、受过教育、极具魅力,他将把佛罗伦萨从一个充斥着财富和奢侈的美第奇城市,变成一个致力于贫困的“上帝之城”

萨沃纳罗拉第一次出现在公众面前,就在美第奇人失去对这座城市的控制之时。新的家族首领皮耶罗·德梅迪奇(Piero de’Medici)在1494年11月底刚刚被迫流亡海外,被一个他无力再行贿的佛罗伦萨民众驱逐出境。美第奇在佛罗伦萨的卓越地位,作为政治家、艺术赞助人和公共捐助者,意味着有一个巨大的真空需要填补。

萨沃纳罗拉走到真空中。1494年,法意战争爆发,法国国王查理八世宣称拥有那不勒斯的王位。法国人向南穿过托斯卡纳,占领了比萨城,比萨城以前由佛罗伦萨控制。为了恢复比萨,同时保持中立,佛罗伦萨的执政议会(Signoria)派萨沃纳罗拉作为大使馆的一部分向国王请愿。这将是他绝佳的机会;法国国王查理八世,代表着萨沃纳罗拉曾预言会毁灭这座城市的外国国王。萨沃纳罗拉一定会让查尔斯知道这件事……至少在一定程度上。

说萨沃纳罗拉给人留下了深刻的印象是轻描淡写的。站在国王和他的宫廷面前,他开始了弥赛亚式的长篇大论。上帝,他透露,通过他,并告诉他,查理八世是他必死的工具,被派去惩罚腐败的佛罗伦萨共和国。然而,上帝也告诉他,查尔斯决不应该试图摧毁佛罗伦萨。这样做会让上帝非常不高兴,尽管查尔斯可能是他的工具,但这并不能使他免于难以言喻的复仇。

对萨沃纳罗拉来说,威胁法国国王可能会犯下可怕的错误。但对虔诚的法国国王来说,穿着朴素、穿着凉鞋的萨沃纳罗拉塑造了一个圣洁的形象。查尔斯同意不入侵拯救佛罗伦萨免受不可避免的掠夺、洗劫和不分青红皂白的屠杀,而是和平占领佛罗伦萨。无论萨沃纳罗拉是出于政治头脑,还是出于真正的宗教信仰,佛罗伦萨都要感谢他。最具讽刺意味的是,萨沃纳罗拉在不经意间拯救了大量的宝藏,他随后将继续销毁。

19世纪初朱塞佩·贝佐利的《1494年查理八世进入佛罗伦萨》

1494年11月底,查理八世及其两万人的军队进入佛罗伦萨。他只呆了11天,只要有必要对这座城市施加羞辱性的条件,包括法国军队维持费用15万弗洛林,进入托斯卡纳的堡垒,确认比萨现在属于法国,然后离开佛罗伦萨的人口集体松一口气。

路德维希冯兰根曼特尔的萨沃纳罗拉鼓吹反对挥霍(1879)

虽然查尔斯对这座城市的占领在生活和物质上几乎没有花费,但却对佛罗伦萨的政治威望造成致命的打击。圣母院已经显示出自己无法有效地管理(实际上是保护)这座城市。在政府失败的地方,人们求助于上帝。萨沃纳罗拉在佛罗伦萨大教堂的讲坛上高喊着布道,参加布道的人数多达1.4万人;该市民众从大教堂的大门向外散开,这样,即使他们看不到这位手持十字架的神职人员,他们至少也能听到他的信息。

他的信息是明确的:麦地契人失败了,连同他们注入城市的所有空洞、无神的唯物主义。他想让佛罗伦萨成为“上帝之城”,意大利急需净化的中心城市。他宣扬,通往正义的唯一道路是拒绝物质财富。愿富足的赐给贫穷的人,愿教会的财宝被剥夺,一切人都要严格遵守神的律法。这条信息在1497年四旬斋节开始的时候被付诸实践,这一事件被称为“虚无的篝火”

桑德罗·波提切利,世界著名的维纳斯的画家,只是众多被萨沃纳罗拉魅力迷住的同时代人之一

萨沃纳罗拉派他的“无辜的小队”(一群穿着白色衣服的孩子)带着一队武装警卫在城市里四处游荡。他们奉命收集所有能找到的贵重物品,并把它们带到德拉希诺里亚广场。这些贵重物品被扔到一个巨大的金字塔上烧掉了:假发、衣服、香水、古代异教徒的文字、绘画、雕像和半身像,全都堆在撒旦的塑像下面。对萨沃纳罗拉来说,这是一个快乐的时刻。但他几乎不知道这个广场很快就会成为另一场公众焚烧的地方:他将在其中扮演更重要的角色。

尽管萨沃纳罗拉可能是这座城市的实际统治者,但他的地位从未稳固过。在法国国王最终占领那不勒斯后,他拒绝加入其他意大利国家反抗查理八世(萨沃纳罗拉仍然视他为上帝的工具),从而疏远了教皇亚历山大六世。诚然,萨沃纳罗拉可能赢得了佛罗伦萨广大人口的支持,包括波提切利(Botticelli)等艺术家,甚至还有年迈的米开朗基罗(Michelangelo)。但这位“上帝之城”的领袖也面临着平民、贵族和敌对宗教派别的反对。

1498年5月底,发生了一个闹剧,一群对教皇忠心耿耿的方济各修士向萨沃纳罗拉挑战,要他在火上行走来证明他的神圣恩惠。如果他安然无恙地从苦难中走出来,他可以继续统治这座城市。方济各会甚至提出了自己的一个特别激进的修士来挑战他(尽管萨沃纳罗拉拒绝接受挑战,而是把它留给了他的热情弟子多梅尼科达佩西亚)。然而,在约定的日子里,当全城的人群聚集在一起,见证这一奇异而古老的景象时,天空打开了,在猛烈的雨中,这一事件被取消了。

绑带涉及到受害者的双手被绑在背后,他们被滑轮吊起来,然后(几乎)掉到地板上,震动令人痛苦,有时会从插座上撕裂手臂

在那场失败的火灾折磨后的第二天,萨沃纳罗拉的情况终于有了转机。那是棕榈星期天,他的一个门徒偷偷溜出圣马可修道院去布道。但收视率不高,他被愤怒的暴徒追回修道院。暴徒们在萨沃纳罗拉正在祈祷的修道院外扎营,在一天中不断膨胀。不久,他们试图用梯子和钩钩进入修道院。萨沃纳罗拉恳求他的兄弟们不要反抗,但这并不好。

他们推下梯子,扔下钩子,一位德国牧师甚至向人群中发射了中世纪的大炮。这只会煽起暴民的火焰,不久他们就设法破门而入。他们发现萨沃纳罗拉在里面,深深地祈祷着,就把他拖到外面,强迫他穿过吐口水、嘲笑的人群,一直走到德拉西诺里亚宫。在那里,他的脚被捆绑在一起,他被送到皇宫的监狱,等待第二天的酷刑审判。

第二天早上,萨沃纳罗拉被带到了这个城市臭名昭著的监狱巴杰罗。在那里,他遭受了痛苦的酷刑技术称为strappado。在破解并供认所有他被指控的异端邪说之前,他忍受了刑具上的四滴水。但一旦他镇定下来,他就撤回了供词。他被吊起来放在刑具上,又被扔了好几次,最后才认罪。作为一名牧师,他只能被一个教会法庭判处死刑。对萨沃纳罗拉来说,不幸的是,他招致了教皇亚历山大六世的仇恨,教皇亚历山大六世适时地安排了这件事。

照片底部的牌匾标明了萨沃纳罗拉和他的门徒被处决的地点

1498年5月23日,吉拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉和他的两个门徒被处决。这是一件特别可怕的事情。这三个人被绞死在广场的中心,受到了一大群人的嘲笑。一旦死了,他们摇摆的尸体下面就开始燃烧,并在尸体上添加了火药。目击者兰杜奇(Landucci)记录说,尸体燃烧缓慢,四肢一个个脱落,只剩下灰烬。他们就被抬去,丢在亚嫩河里,只是有些门徒尽了所能,从河里捡了一堆湿透的灰,给他们安葬。

萨沃纳罗拉的遗产将远远超过他的死亡状态。他的死并没有标志着这座城市宗教暴力的结束。然而,它确实结束了宗教极端主义的一章,最终导致了一个摧毁现代城市佛罗伦萨闻名全球的行为:其无价的艺术品和数不清的财富。

文章来源美国那些事转载请注明出处:美国那些事 » 文艺复兴时期佛罗伦萨的雄心壮志:吉拉莫·萨沃纳罗拉的生死

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