船上的厨师被迫接管了一把机关枪,以保护他的战列舰免受日军的攻击

餐厅服务员多丽丝·米勒(Doris Miller)盯着他的高射炮瞄准器飞驰而下的日本飞机。他停了一会儿,拼命想往回走。这一天像其他任何一天一样开始。6点起床,7点前供应周星驰,然后下到船上的洗衣店,直到午饭。然而,一路走来,所有的地狱都爆发了,现在米勒,一个来自德克萨斯州的普通厨师,突然发现自己在为自己的生命而战。油烟灼伤了他的眼睛,不断的爆炸声威胁着他的耳膜破裂。他毫不气馁,用他的十字准星瞄准了飞机,敲响了勃朗宁0.50口径机关枪的扳机。西弗吉尼亚号不会不战而降,多莉·米勒也不会。

一个与众不同的日子

1941年12月7日和其他任何一天一样,三等餐厅服务员,多丽丝“多莉”米勒。然而,在米勒和他的船友不知情的情况下,日本帝国海军正迅速接近夏威夷群岛,一心想摧毁美国太平洋舰队。拂晓后不久,第一波庞大的打击力量对成千上万毫无戒心的水手发动了一次毁灭性的突然袭击,袭击的对象是那些正在进行日常工作的毫无戒心的水手。数百枚日本炸弹和鱼雷轰击珍珠港,击沉4艘军舰,对另外4艘造成严重损害,夺走了2000多名美国人的生命。

米勒当时正在甲板下分隔制服和清洁亚麻布,他对最初的袭击感到震惊和困惑。然而,当总司令部的声音响起时,几个月的训练立刻开始了。他戴上头盔,跑到他指定的车站,却发现这个地区一片狼藉。七枚日本91型空中鱼雷中有一枚击中了预定目标,几乎使舰上的防空弹匣蒸发。为了帮助他的船友们登上甲板,米勒急忙爬上附近的一个阶梯井,前往“时代广场”,这是西弗吉尼亚州中心地带一个得名的交叉路口,每天都有数百名水手聚集在这里。

一枚日本炸弹摧毁了美国海军军舰在珍珠港的最初攻击

船上的通讯官,副指挥官多伊尔约翰逊,发现米勒,并迅速标记下来,以寻求帮助。两个人跑向舰桥,船长默文·本尼昂严重受伤。米勒和约翰逊把本尼昂搬到了康宁大厦附近,尽管他腹部受了可怕的伤,他还是继续下达命令。另一名军官随后命令米勒协助附近一名海军少尉装载无人高射机枪。米勒虽然不熟悉这种武器,但还是装上了枪,然后自己动手向上方盘旋的日军飞机发射了一系列令人窒息的高射炮火,在此过程中耗尽了所有弹药

随着勃朗宁机关枪的干涸,米勒把注意力转移到受伤的船长身上。米勒和两名中尉一起把本尼昂抬到船上的驾驶台上,半昏迷的船长在那里受了伤。两枚穿甲弹和另一对日军鱼雷突然在脚下爆炸,有可能使船倾覆。米勒协助撤离,后来因在严重的人身危险面前表现出令人难以置信的英雄主义而被授予海军十字勋章。这位一向谦逊的水手后来回忆说:“我想我把她解雇了大约15分钟。我想我有一架日本飞机。他们在离我们很近的地方潜水。”

沃科,德克萨斯广场1939

出身卑微

多丽丝·米勒是德克萨斯州人,1919年10月12日出生在瓦科。四个男孩中的一个,他的父母(亨丽埃塔和康奈利米勒)给兄弟俩提供了一个适度的教养。米勒是个天生的运动员,在a.J.Moore高中,他充分利用了他6英尺3英寸、200磅重的强壮身躯。然而,他在学业上举步维艰,读了八年级就辍学了。在加入海军之前,米勒利用业余时间打猎小型猎物,同时考虑从事动物标本学的职业。他申请了平民保护团,但遭到拒绝,这促使他考虑服兵役。

米勒在他父亲的农场上度过了相当长的时间,他在那里当了一名普通工人,后来加入了美国海军。他于1939年进入现役服役,参加伊利诺伊州大湖区海军基地的新兵训练营,并在弗吉尼亚州诺福克的海军训练站进行后续训练。完成后一个课程后,米勒被任命为三等食堂服务员,驻扎在“派洛”号弹药船上。1940年冬天,米勒被派往维吉尼亚州,在那里度过了短暂的冬季之旅。

除了熟悉厨房,米勒还证明了自己在拳击台上的实力,在巡回赛的头几个月里成为西弗吉尼亚州的重量级拳击冠军。1940年7月,米勒临时在内华达号航空母舰二级炮兵学校服役。他于1940年8月3日回到西弗吉尼亚州,一直是她的船员,直到1941年珍珠港遇袭。这次袭击夺去了米勒130名船员的生命,另有52人在战斗中受伤或失踪。米勒随后的任务包括在印第安纳波利斯号和利斯康湾号军舰上工作。

美国西弗吉尼亚号(BB-48)在珍珠港事件发生后,美国西弗吉尼亚号网站(USSSWestVirginiaorg)

米勒目睹了珍珠港事件后的战斗行动,不幸的是,1943年11月23日至25日的马金战役中,一枚日本鱼雷炸死了米勒。这场耗资巨大的交战发生在马金环礁附近,对美国在太平洋“跳岛”运动的成功至关重要。米勒的船“利斯康湾”号在吉尔伯特群岛执行护航行动时遭到一艘日本潜艇的袭击。一系列的二次爆炸导致护航航母被毁沉没,据推测有600多人在行动中失踪。海军于1943年12月7日正式宣布米勒死亡,正好是珍珠港事件发生两年后。

除了海军十字勋章外,米勒还获得了其他几个奖项,包括紫心勋章、美国国防服务勋章(Fleet Clasp)、亚洲太平洋战役奖章和二战胜利奖章。他迅速晋级,从三等伙食服务员到一等伙食服务员,最终达到了中士、船上厨师、三等的等级。一般认为,米勒的绰号来源于匹兹堡信使在珍珠港事件后的一个印刷错误。不管它的起源如何,这个名字在米勒的许多船友中回响,他们经常把这个可爱的厨师简单地称为“多莉”

美国海军上将米切尔·切斯特·切斯特号(1944年5月27日)和海军上将米利兹·切斯特·克罗斯(1944年5月27日)在船上展示了海军上将“米尔切斯-W”号“十字勋章”

遗产与争议

多丽丝·米勒是第一位获得海军十字勋章的非洲裔美国人。第二个荣誉是荣誉勋章。然而,米勒在不同的时代获得了这个奖项;在这个时代,种族偏见仍然是美国主流社会不可或缺的因素。切斯特·W·尼米兹上将在向米勒赠送海军十字勋章时表示,“这标志着太平洋舰队首次在这场冲突中向他(米勒)种族的一员表示如此崇高的敬意,我相信未来还会看到其他人因勇敢行为而受到同样的荣誉。”

不管他的意图如何,尼米兹的言论激起了一场已经火热的政治和社会辩论。一旦米勒的功绩成为公众所知,许多黑人维权团体都为他而奔走。例如,全国有色人种协进会(NAACP)和黑人媒体的成员,在国会关于米勒可能被推荐为荣誉勋章而不是海军十字勋章的争论中,站在了一边。参议院法案的反对者质疑其作者的政治目的,因为该文件是在米勒困境的所有细节到达国会山之前制定的。

更糟糕的是当时的海军部长弗兰克·诺克斯,他坚决反对米勒被授予荣誉勋章。据《达拉斯周刊》报道,“一群历史学家发现,诺克斯国务卿只想给多莉·米勒一封表扬信,表扬他的行为。直到罗斯福总统和切斯特·尼米兹海军上将出面干预之后,多莉·米勒才收到海军十字勋章。“表扬信是一种主动提出的文件,表彰卓越地履行职责,通常在非战时环境下发给初级服役人员,与荣誉勋章或海军十字勋章相比,这是一个相当平凡的奖项。

更积极的是,自二战结束以来,各种组织和机构都认可米勒的成就,并庆祝德克萨斯人的一生。米勒号(FF-1091)是一艘诺克斯级驱逐舰,海军为了纪念多莉而服役。德克萨斯州韦科的退伍军人事务医疗中心目前有一座纪念碑,纪念这位从食堂服务员变成的高射炮手,这座纪念碑也在多丽丝·米勒大道附近。从德克萨斯到加利福尼亚,至少有五所公立学校都有米勒的名字。在珍珠港的美国海军基地,甚至有一个公园,到处都是青铜牌匾和纪念碑,用来纪念米勒。

沃多丽丝·米勒纪念馆

正如罗斯福总统所预言的那样,珍珠港突袭事件仍然是一个臭名昭著的历史事件,但像多丽丝·米勒这样的人的无私和英雄行为才是我们对太平洋战争的集体记忆的真正写照。无论是在战火纷飞中配备高射炮,还是作为战争保证金活动的一部分在美国西南部巡回演出,米勒的故事在他那个时代感动了数以百万计的美国人,并一直持续到今天。多丽米勒是一个英雄,在任何意义上,一个男人谁付出了最终的牺牲,为一个感恩和负债的国家。

文章来源美国那些事转载请注明出处:美国那些事 » 船上的厨师被迫接管了一把机关枪,以保护他的战列舰免受日军的攻击

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