这是FBI头号通缉犯名单上的第一个女人

1947年7月16日,乔安妮·黛博拉·拜伦出生,她是第一位被联邦调查局(FBI)列为国内恐怖分子的女性。美国人可能认得她的脸,也可能知道她已婚的名字,乔安妮·切西玛德,但全世界都会记得她是阿萨塔沙库尔。她童年

沙库尔出生于牙买加、皇后区和纽约,她和父母、姑姑、祖父母住在一起,直到三岁。1950年,她的父母离婚了,于是她跟着爷爷奶奶弗兰克和露露·希尔来到北卡罗来纳州的威尔明顿。尽管当时禁止非裔美国人使用公共海滩,但希尔夫妇拥有自己的财产,经营一家海滨餐厅,为海滩游客提供更衣室和储物柜;这是一个理想的旅游场所。

当然,乔安妮也同样在这家酒店打球。她还喜欢阅读祖父从只有颜色的图书馆里买来的书。

小学经历

希尔夫妇认为北卡罗莱纳州种族隔离的学校给乔安妮提供的教育水平很低。八岁时,她搬回纽约与母亲和继父住在一起。

她从一所全黑人的南方公立学校,变成了一个几乎全白人、犹太血统浓厚的中产阶级社区。三年级和四年级时,她是学校里唯一的非裔美国学生。到了五年级,还有一个黑人学生。老师们无知地认为她需要基于种族的特殊教育。

在纽约期间,她还证明历史的教学稍有不同;它被糖衣包裹着,以破坏南部和整个历史上对非裔美国人的压迫。

不幸的是,她高中辍学离家出走了。乔安妮的姑姑伊芙琳·威廉姆斯在街上发现了她。威廉姆斯女士后来成为她的辩护小组的一员。她带外甥女去博物馆、剧院和其他文化活动;她姨妈鼓励她在16岁的时候挣GED。

上大学

那是20世纪60年代末,乔安妮就读于曼哈顿区社区学院,打算学习工商管理;然而,她开始沉浸在学生活动和黑人研究项目中。随着民权运动的兴起,她通过阅读政治、黑人历史和不同的意识形态来教育自己。乔安妮热情地参加会议、讨论、抗议和静坐。

金鼓协会是她在大学期间加入的第一个黑人学生团体。路易斯·切斯马也属于这个组织。两人在1967年结婚,但仅仅四年后就离婚了。乔安妮·切西玛德取了一个穆斯林的名字,改变了她的发型,穿着也体现了她的非洲传统。她决心为黑人的解放而战,并为此献出了自己的一生。

她于1967年首次因非法侵入而被捕。她和另外100名来自曼哈顿区社区学院的学生通过锁上其中一栋大楼的入口,抗议黑人教师和黑人研究的缺乏。

黑豹党与黑人解放军

1970年,23岁的沙库尔从纽约城市学院毕业,加入黑豹党(BPP)。她自豪地领导哈莱姆分部,并负责组织一个学校早餐项目。乔安妮·切西玛德负责黑豹党的哈林分部。她组织了一个早餐项目。

乔安妮·切西玛德负责黑豹党的哈林分部,她在英国《纽约时报》组织了一个早餐项目

尽管有积极的影响,她还是因为几个不同的原因离开了BPP。她确实对大男子主义表示了一些关注,但主要批评了该党缺乏黑人历史教育。沙库尔认为,BPP缺乏统一的理念,这使得该组织变得无效和软弱。她参加了黑人解放军。会议更有条理,成员们也更了解情况。然而,这也是更激进的;他们相信他们可以创造一个革命运动的变化。

在接下来的几年里,BLA将负责纽约、新泽西、密歇根和密苏里的银行抢劫和狙击手枪击案。对于那些收看当地新闻的人来说,媒体仍然把她称为乔安妮·切西玛德,她被描绘成有组织混乱的驱动力。

新泽西收费公路枪战

1973年5月2日上午12:45,沙库尔是扎伊德·梅尔克·沙库尔的乘客,出生于詹姆斯·F·科斯坦。Sundiata Acoli出生于克拉克·爱德华·斯奎尔(Clark Edward Squire),当这辆双门车在新泽西州收费公路上的东不伦瑞克被拦下时,他正好坐在沙库尔后面的后座上。州警詹姆斯·哈珀坐在第一辆巡逻车里,沃纳·福斯特开着一辆后备车。最初的停车是因为尾灯坏了,车速有点过快。

1973年,在新泽西州收费公路枪战主场《新闻论坛报》上,一名士兵沃纳·福斯特在执勤时被枪杀,当时他只有32岁

在收到司机的身份证明时出现了不一致,骑警哈珀让他下车,并在车尾询问他。关于接下来发生的事情,关于证人证言、医学证据和其他因素的描述各不相同。然而,弗斯特和扎伊德·沙库尔被杀。士兵哈珀和阿萨塔·沙库尔在枪战中双双受伤。在没有受伤的情况下,阿科利试图与受伤的阿萨塔·沙库尔和即将死亡或已经死亡的扎伊德·沙库尔乘坐白色庞蒂亚克逃离。

1965年参与新泽西收费公路枪战的佛蒙特牌照的白色庞蒂亚克车被盗的车牌、假身份证和证件、枪支和弹药都是从米德尔塞克斯县检察院的车辆上找到的

警方随后展开追捕,并通知收费公路沿线的收费亭追捕。三辆巡逻车终于把五英里外的年轻革命者拦住了。骑警罗伯特·帕伦恰尔是现场的第一名警官。他朝阿科利卸下枪,把他追到树林里。

据士兵帕伦查尔说,阿萨塔·沙库尔举起手臂投降,显然是她自己受伤流血。扎伊德·沙库尔的尸体是从路边的一个沟壑中找到的。抓捕阿科利花了36个小时,400人,包括州警察直升机和猎犬。

由于双臂和一个肩膀都有枪伤,沙库尔被送往米德尔塞克斯综合医院。同样,士兵哈珀左肩中枪。

新泽西收费公路枪战米德尔塞克斯郡检察官办公室后,乔安妮·切西马尔(又名阿萨塔·沙库尔)在医院被拘留

《纽约时报》第二天报道说,联邦调查局以谋杀警官、抢劫银行和手榴弹袭击等罪名通缉乔安妮·切斯马尔。

乔安妮·切斯马1973年的照片

刑事指控

新泽西枪战不会是阿萨塔·沙库尔参与的唯一刑事案件。事实上,在1973年至1977年间,她曾在纽约和新泽西州被起诉十次,罪名是两起银行抢劫案和新泽西州枪战引发的八起重罪。

虽然有三人未经审判就被全部驳回,但其中七人已进入刑事诉讼程序。其中,沙库尔获得三项无罪判决,一项陪审团悬而未决,一项改变审判地点,一项无效审判和一项定罪。

新泽西收费公路枪战的审判开始时,沙库尔怀孕了,这导致审判无效。沙库尔于1974年9月生下一个女孩。Kakuya Amala Olugbala Shkaur出生于纽约皇后区的Elmhurst综合医院。作为一名罪犯,阿萨塔·沙库尔几天后被送回莱克斯岛。孩子的父亲是弗雷德·希尔顿。

枪战事件的审判将被推迟,因为当时的民调显示,三年前阿科利已经被判有罪的米德尔塞克斯的居民显示,80%以上的人知道她的身份,70%的人认为她已经有罪。因此,陪审团是从莫里斯县选出的。沙库尔的审判程序仍在法官约翰巴赫曼(johne.Bachman)领导下的米德尔塞克斯郡进行。

审判终于开始了

三年后,沙库尔因1977年新泽西收费公路枪战被重审,尽管阿科利已经被判谋杀弗斯特士兵罪,理由是他发射了子弹。

1976年,乔安妮·切西玛德被带着手铐从纽约市的莱克斯岛监狱押送到米德尔塞克斯郡监狱等待审判

再次,沙库尔试图以她的穆斯林宗教为由将审判移送联邦法院,但没有成功。然而,她的请求被驳回。她试图在穆斯林安息日(星期五)停止审判程序,但也遭到了拒绝。审判持续了九个星期;每天都有数百名民权活动人士聚集在米德尔塞克斯郡法院。

沙库尔于1977年3月15日被传唤为证人。当她被自己的辩护团队审问时,她否认射杀了两名士兵。她声称她整晚都没拿枪。经过盘问,她无法解释16枚实弹和3盒弹药是如何落入她的肩包的。她的身份证上写着谋杀当晚的贾斯汀·亨德森,虽然她叫乔安妮·切西玛德和阿萨塔·沙库尔。

她详细作证说,士兵哈珀是在她举手同意他的要求后才开枪打死她的。第二枪击中了她的后背,因为她转身躲避。沙库尔称,在接下来的枪战中,她倒在了路上。五英里后,她把庞蒂亚克的车开进了收费公路。

起初,警察哈珀在阿科利的审判中作证;他声称,当第二辆警车到达现场时,嫌疑人立即开始开枪,但在沙库尔的审判中,警察哈珀回忆起了另一个故事。他说,弗斯特士兵发现了一把手枪和弹夹,迫使阿科利和沙库尔举起手来,不许动。他没有顺从,而是作证说她从钱包里掏出一把枪朝他的肩膀开了一枪。最终,阿科利的枪卡住了,经过短暂的挣扎,士兵弗斯特被阿科利用自己的枪射中。

Sundiata Acoli,生于1976年的克拉克·爱德华·斯奎尔(Clark Edward Squire)

由于这一切的反复,很难追踪那致命的夜晚到底发生了什么。官方报告显示了骑警哈珀所说的情况:车辆被拦下后,阿科利被命令到车辆后面。弗斯特骑警现在已经到达现场,准备检查阿科利的驾驶执照;声明说他遵守了。

此时,骑警哈珀正在检查车牌并查看车内情况。弗斯特向阿科利大喊大叫,举起一个弹夹;阿萨塔·沙库尔同时从钱包里取出一把枪,向哈珀开枪。他跑向车尾准备恢复;沙库尔也撞到了地上,继续从庞蒂亚克车外开火。尽管有记录在案的陈述,士兵哈珀承认在阿科利和沙库尔的审判中,他捏造了这些报告。

沙库尔的律师团提供了医疗证词,解释说她是在正中神经处右臂中枪的。一名神经科医生声称,她本来就无法从身体上扣动扳机。根据枪战当天进行的中子活化分析,她的手指上没有发现火药残留。事实上,在案发现场使用的任何枪支上都没有沙库尔的指纹。

判决书

乔安妮·切西马尔于1977年3月25日被判有罪,罪名包括两项谋杀罪和六项袭击罪。州检方不需要证明她开了致命的一枪,甚至现场有枪。她是杀害弗斯特和扎伊德·沙库尔的同谋,根据新泽西州法律,这两人被判无期徒刑。

她不仅被判处无期徒刑,而且还被判26-33年监禁,因为有时由于假释而缩短了无期徒刑。这样,她将被迫服满刑期。

在她入狱期间,阿萨塔·沙库尔被转移到几个不同的监狱,包括位于亚德维尔的新泽西州收容和教养中心以及位于纽约市的里克斯岛妇女教养所等。她受到残酷和不人道的条件,甚至被迫作为唯一的女性留在一个全男性设施。

联合国人权委员会在1979年认定,对沙库尔的监禁“完全不适合任何囚犯”。经过调查,他们发现,侵犯她的人权是“最严重的案件之一”,她被列入“联邦调查局通过COINTELPRO战略和其他形式不当行为的一类受害者”作为政治活动家,他们被选择性地作为挑衅、虚假逮捕、诱捕、伪造证据和虚假刑事起诉的目标。”

另一方面,大赦国际不同意阿萨塔·沙库尔是政治犯。

1979年11月2日,阿萨塔·沙库尔越狱。在新泽西州的克林顿管教所,三名来访者恰巧是英国律师协会的成员,他们用隐藏的手枪劫持了两名警卫作为人质。劫机者控制了一辆囚车,并帮助沙库尔逃离。穆图卢·沙库尔,她的哥哥和西尔维娅·巴拉尔迪尼被控帮助她逃跑。另外三人也因越狱被定罪。

穆图卢·沙库尔和儿子图帕克·沙库尔(右)坐在一起,穆图卢是阿萨塔的哥哥,帮助阿萨塔越狱

通缉逃犯

联邦调查局在新泽西州和纽约州发布了通缉令,而她的支持者则展示了“欢迎阿萨塔·沙库尔”的标语。

非洲新共和国为支持阿萨塔·沙库尔·汤姆伯格珍本而创作的海报

全国黑人人权联盟在她逃走三天后组织了一场有5000多名抗议者的示威游行,支持沙库尔。尽管她的家人和朋友,包括她的女儿,都受到严格监控,但沙库尔从未被抓获。近5年来,她的亲属的行踪和电话都被记录在案。一个被称为“天气预报员”的极端激进组织可能在沙库尔躲避警察时协助她。

逃往古巴

1984年,沙库尔悄悄溜出美国,超出了美国法律的管辖范围。她在古巴获得政治庇护。她的母亲和阿姨伊芙琳访问了古巴的沙库尔。1987年,她的女儿搬到古巴和她一起生活。

阿萨塔·沙库尔与女儿卡库亚在古巴亚特兰大黑星

联邦调查局在新泽西收费公路枪战32周年之际,将沙库尔列为首位女性国内恐怖分子。一笔100万美元的悬赏,是当时最大的一笔,放在她的头上。2013年,由于是40周年纪念日,奖金翻了一番。她继续住在古巴。

代表联邦调查局和新泽西州警方,抓捕和逮捕乔安妮·切西玛德的总奖金为联邦调查局/新泽西州警方200万美元

文章来源美国那些事转载请注明出处:美国那些事 » 这是FBI头号通缉犯名单上的第一个女人

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