玛丽·塞莱斯特号的船员到底怎么了?

玛丽·塞莱斯特号船员的失踪是有史以来最持久的海上谜团之一。1872年12月5日,德格拉西亚号的船员们发现了这艘游荡的船,它的形状很粗糙,但仍然适合航行。探险队惊讶地发现“玛丽·塞莱斯特”号被遗弃了,无法对乘客和船员的失踪提出合适的解释。由于船上每个人的私人物品都完好无损,因此没有任何恶意行为的证据。

玛丽·塞莱斯特(Mary Celeste)号于1861年成立,在包括詹姆斯·H·温彻斯特(James H.Winchester)、本杰明·斯普纳·布里格斯(Benjamin Spooner Briggs)和几位小投资者在内的财团于1872年获得所有权之前,它曾多次易手。这艘船于1872年11月7日从纽约起航;热那亚是它的目的地。布里格斯担任船长,带来了他的妻子、女儿和七名船员。货物是1701桶有毒变性酒精。

11月15日,“德惠”号在前往直布罗陀的途中从新泽西出发,沿途与命运多舛的玛丽·塞莱斯特(Mary Celeste)相同。12月4日,德格拉西亚号的一名船员发现几英里外有一艘船不稳地向他们驶来。大卫·莫豪斯是船长,他立刻怀疑出了什么问题。当船驶近时,他惊讶地发现甲板上没有人,并且极为担忧,因为另一艘船没有回应信号。

船员们爬上船时发现玛丽·塞莱斯特号被遗弃了。船帆状况很差,一些索具也损坏了。船上的救生艇不见了,一根临时的测深杆(用来测量水深)被遗弃在甲板上。“玛丽·塞莱斯特”号曾在水面上航行了大约一米,但这对于一艘这样大小的船来说并不罕见。

进一步检查发现,其中9个桶是空的。玛丽·塞莱斯特号航海日志上的最后一条记录日期是11月25日,这意味着这艘船在海上漂流了9天,在此期间航行了500英里。船舱内部状况良好,但船上的文书和导航仪器不见了。没有任何暴力或斗争的迹象,最合乎逻辑的结论是布里格斯船长已下令离船。

莫尔豪斯把玛丽·塞莱斯特号带到直布罗陀打捞,一个名叫弗雷德里克·索利·弗劳德的人主持了庭审。他突然得出了犯罪的结论,并把罪魁祸首归咎于饮酒。洪水命令对这艘船进行检查,发现了一些有趣的发现。有消息称,在甲板上发现了一把剑,栏杆上的污渍似乎是血迹。还发现了一个很深的痕迹,很可能是斧头造成的。

莫尔豪斯和他的船员受到怀疑,但最终被清除了所有的不法行为。唉,这些人只得到了他们应得的救助金的一小部分,也一直处于争议的阴云之中。弗雷德确信莫豪斯和他的手下和玛丽·塞莱斯特的船员失踪有关,尽管并没有证据。

玛丽·塞莱斯特

有几种流行的理论,有些是明智的,而另一些则是完全疯狂的!

这些不寻常的血迹和血液的发现让人觉得叛变是玛丽·塞莱斯特问题的根源。然而,后来发现,这些污渍不是血,痕迹属于正常磨损。弗雷德认为应该归咎于一名喝醉的船员,但船上的酒精不适合人类饮用。这9个桶是用红橡木做的,其余的是用白橡木做的;红橡木更容易泄漏。对于叛变者来说,把船放在大洋中央的一艘救生艇上也是毫无意义的。

里夫亚海盗在19世纪70年代活跃于北非海岸,因此人们认为他们应该对此负责。然而,他们会洗劫这艘船,拿走船员的个人物品。另一种理论认为,“德惠号”的船员为了打捞钱财而谋杀了船上的10个人,但同样没有证据。最后,布里格斯和温彻斯特发起保险诈骗的理论没有什么意义,因为他们不会创造一个引起如此多关注的场景。

你知道这个会出现,是吗?关于玛丽·塞莱斯特号的古老传说称,桌子上有吃了一半的食物,最后一次记录是在船被发现之前做的。事实上,关于桌上早餐的故事是一个神话,最后一次登入是在船被发现前9天。

最可能的解释是布里格斯船长下令弃船。但为什么呢?布里格斯在航海界很有经验,也很受尊敬,所以他不太可能做出不理智的事情。他为什么要把玛丽·塞莱斯特号留给家人和船员,有几个合理的理由。

这批货物是高度挥发性的酒精,布里格斯可能看到泄漏的货物亮了灯,以为船就要爆炸,于是下令疏散。由于船上没有爆炸或火灾的迹象,这一理论最初被打折了。

加州大学洛杉矶分校的安德里亚·塞拉博士制作了一个船舱的复制品,并模拟了可能发生的爆炸。他用方块纸代替木桶,点燃丁烷气体。结果是一个巨大的火焰爆炸,但令人惊讶的是,立方体没有被烧毁,甚至发黑。这样的爆炸会把舱口炸开,把船员吓坏了。“玛丽·塞莱斯特”号上泄漏了300加仑酒精,火花可能是一名粗心的船员拿着烟斗,或者两个桶擦在一起引起的。很自然,布里格斯会担心爆炸和弃船。

纪录片作家安妮·麦格雷戈进行的研究显示,布里格斯认为玛丽·塞莱斯特号离它所在地以西大约120英里是因为一个有故障的计时器。在到达亚速尔群岛的前一天,布里格斯改变了方向;可能是为了到达圣玛丽亚。

船上的水泵没有工作,因此船长无法测量船体中的海水水位;这就解释了在甲板上发现的废弃探水杆。船长的航海日志上记录了恶劣的天气,所以也许布里格斯认为这艘船随时都可能沉没,而且似乎可以看到陆地,于是下令放弃玛丽·塞莱斯特号。当然,这不能解释船员离开船后发生了什么!

纪念玛丽·塞莱斯特·洛斯塔塞默里号船员的牌匾

虽然我们能对船员失踪提出合理的解释,但没有确凿的证据,而且由于这个谜发生在140多年前,我们很可能永远也不会知道真正的答案。此外,船上10个人的命运也没有任何线索。最可能的情况是他们在海上淹死了。玛丽·塞莱斯特号在1885年作为保险诈骗的一部分,在海地海岸被故意搁浅之前,又多次易手。

文章来源美国那些事转载请注明出处:美国那些事 » 玛丽·塞莱斯特号的船员到底怎么了?

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